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 Lietuvos dailės muziejaus leidinių katalogai

„Lithuanian sculpture 1940 – 1990
collections of the Lithuanian museum of art“

 

Elona Lubyte
 
The Acquisition of the Collection
. The period between 1940 and 1990 is the years of Lithuania's occupation by the Soviet Union. The state, deprived of its independence, suffered complex political and social changes in the course of half a century. In the life of art principally the only official style - Socialist Realism - was recognized. The Museum, traditionally preserving and representing culture, became an institution, patronized and controlled by the ideologically oriented state authorities.
In 1949, art exhibits were divided on the basis of the political engagement of art but not on that of chronological typology or trends into the collections under the following titles: pre-war revolutionary Russian Art; Soviet Russian Art; pre-war Lithuanian Art; Soviet Lithuanian Art; and West European Art. This is how artificial was the classification of the art works produced in the interwar and Soviet periods. The collection of the Soviet Lithuanian art, besides 153 paintings and 150 graphic sheets, included 70 sculptures1acquired on the decision of the Commission for the Purchasing of Museum Art Treasures.
Today, the collection contains 1543 sculptures, the majority of which was acquired from the thematic, jubilee, individual and competitive exhibitions and previews, constantly held in the exhibition halls of the branches of the Museum - the Vilnius Town Hall, the Palace of Art Exhibitions and the Gallery of Soviet Lithuanian Art.2 For a long time, only the members of the LSSR Artists' Union, its candidates and the members of the Youth Section were admitted to these exhibitions. The main initiators and organisers of the Soviet art exhibitions were the Department of Art under the LSSR Council of Ministers, in 1953 reorganized into the LSSR Ministry of Culture, and the LSSR Artists' Union.
From 1948 onwards the functions of purchasing art works were taken over from the Museum by the Commission of the Department of Art. The Commission was comprised of cultural functionaries, representatives of the Artists' Union and museums. The works, acquired by the Commission, were distributed among Lithuanian museums. From 1962 onwards the Fund of Art3 also began to acquire works of contemporary arts. Such acquisitions were funded by the Artists' Union, and the purchase was controlled by the above mentioned Departmental Commission. In the 70s and 80s, part of the works, accumulated in this way, was also given over to the collections of the Lithuanian Museum of Art (henceforth LMA): in 1971 - 19 sculptures, in 1974 - 36, in 1980 - 38, in 1985 - 106, in all, 199 sculptures.4
The issues, related to the acquisition of the works of deceased artists, were solved by the Republican Expert Commission for the Arts, Theatre and Music Heritage, on whose decisions the Museum's collections were replenished by the deceased artists' works, namely: Rapolas Jakimavicius' -70 sculptures (1962), Juozas Mikėnas' - 40 (1976) and Napoleonas Petrulis' - 71 sculptures (1985, 1987).
In the 70s and 80s, the emigre artists, who managed to force their way through the 'Iron Curtain' and to visit their native land, donated to the Museum their works produced in emigration, which attested their attempts to integrate themselves into the realm of Western art. Up until 1990, the Museum's collections were augmented by 40 works of Vytautas K. Jonynas, Pranas Gasparonis, Jokubas Dagys and Vytautas Kasuba. That process became particularly intensive after 1990.
Following the restoration of Lithuania's independence, the Museum's sculpture collections, preserving old chronological delimitation, were divided into two sculpture collections - old Lithuanian and Lithuanian of the second half of the 20th century and other countries.5 In 1993, the Museum regained its right to form collections. This function was performed by the Museum Commission for the Acquisition of Exhibits.
After the 1990 transfer of the functions of arranging exhibitions of contemporary arts to the Centre of Contemporary Arts, the Museum did not acquire any objects of interdisciplinary stylistics due to the lack of permanent exposition facilities and depository which would satisfy preservation requirements and would be suitable for contemporary arts6 The distribution of modest funds for the acquisition of works enabled the Museum to fill in the gaps, which existed in the collections of the 70s and 80s and to purchase the most characteristic traditional sculptural works of the current period: 1991 - 40 sculptures, 1992 - 9, 1993 - 1, 1995 - 5, 1996 - 2, 1997 - 6, 1998 - 1 sculpture.7
Today, only a small part of the collection under discussion - 53 sculptures - is on display at the permanent exhibition of the Picture Gallery in Klaipėda. Its major part is stored in depositories (in the halls of the former Gallery of Soviet Art). At present, possibly, only museum specialists remember that in the period between 1956 and 1988 the sculpture depositories were housed in the Valavičiai Chapel of the Vilnius Cathedral.
Artistic Peculiarities of the Collection. The collection includes all types of sculpture: round pieces (1048 items), reliefs, bas-reliefs and high-reliefs (207), medals and medallions (235), plaquettes (41).
The dominant are official genres - portrait and figure composition. A small part of the collection includes associative small-scale plastics and decorative, i.e., public sculpture.8
The Museum's stylistically diverse collection, ranging from interwar Neo-Classicism to post-war Socialist Realism to Post-Modernistic Conceptualism, reflects the immanent development of the Lithuanian contemporary arts and a slightly modified Soviet government policy on art. The collection presents the works of the artists, representing various generations and artistic positions. Lithuanian art, which in the course of the interwar period did not experience a radical movement of the early 20th century Modernism, officially oriented to Neo-Classicist traditions, 'and particularly sculpture, which was to serve a great public purpose, might have easily accepted the conception of Socialist art. However, the imported method of Socialist Realism soon disclosed itself as a dogmatic, utilitarian, politically oriented doctrine'.9
The modernisation of sculpture in the official artistic realm of Socialist Realism, observed between the 50s and 80s, was stimulated by the respect for the traditions of the interwar school. It should be associated with the attempts of separate citizens of the occupied state to legalize individual, innovative contemporary style in the surroundings of Socialist Realism. Lithuania, unlike Moscow or Leningrad, did not witness the formation of a radical underground movement. The dominant features of the process were those of 'Silent Modernism' and 'Nonconformism'. 'The majority of Lithuanian talented artists of various generations, who worked in that period, participated in the 'game' controlled by the authorities, observed its rules, even made use of some privileges granted to its members, say, exhibited their works at local exhibitions, participated in All-Union exhibitions in Moscow, reproduced their works in periodical art publications. At the same time, however, such artists were destroying the so-called dogmas of Socialist Realism, and therefore were criticized by the authorities, sometimes even punished'.10
In Soviet Lithuania a sharp opposition between traditionalism and Avant-gardism was avoided, and besides the official, representative and ideologically oriented style, there appeared an associative art language of plastic allusions, a language which is currently actualized by the youngest generation of artists orienting themselves towards Conceptualism. Older artists also work in the atmosphere of the search for such artistic media.
In the 80s and 90s, Petras P. Aleksandravičius created neo­classical portraits, Konstantinas Bogdanas - realistic portraits, Vladas Vildžiūnas - figure statues of late Modernism stylistics, etc.
The artistic development of Lithuanian sculpture is reflected in the Museum's collections covering the period between 1940 and 1990. In the years of Nazi occupation, the Museum did not terminate its activities and organized exhibitions of Lithuanian and German art and purchased works from the artists' studios. In this way the Museum came into possession of some chamber works, stylistically connected with interwar Neo-Classicist tendencies and not yet artificially ideologically oriented, namely: Robertas Antinis' Egle , Queen of Grass-Snakes (1943), Petras P. Aleksandravičius' Portrait of a Boy, Portrait of Viktoras Vizgirda (both 1943), Mother (1944), Juozas Mikėnas' Girl with Fruits (1941), Head of a Young Man (1942), Singer (1943), Repose (1944). Some time later, in 1958, the Museum acquired Petras Vaivada's Portrait of Painter Levas Mergašilskis (1944), which was sculpted during the years of the Second World War in the villa near Moscow rented by the Managing Department of the LSSR Board of Commissars for Lithuanian artists.11
A politically oriented dictate was getting more specific in the first post-war years: that meant not only the introduction of ideologized methods in artistic work but also the strategy of presenting its results to the public. In the late 40s and early 50s, with the purpose of elucidation of the advantages and qualities of Socialist Realism to the public, the Museum's specialists and the members of the Artists' Union, carrying out their educational propagandist activities, arranged exhibitions in the clubs and reading rooms of villages and towns as well as in railway carriage-clubs traveling around Lithuania.
Each new political system strives to create certain visual signs for its own representation as soon as possible. In sculpture, besides exhibition pieces where dominant genres were portrait and thematic compositions, it was public monuments in the city. In the post-war period, in realizing the Leninist monumental propaganda plan, old monuments were rapidly destroyed and new ones built. In the Museum's collections this process is reflected by the projects awarded at the competition arranged by the Department of Art and the Artists' Union. In the Museum competitions were organized for the monuments to Žemaitė, Maryte Melnikaitė, Salomėja Neris, Liudas Gira, Petras Cvirka (all in 1948), Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas, Karolis Požėla (both in 1956), for memorials dedicated to the Kaunas Ninth Fort (1966, 1968, 1970) and the deeds of the Soviet Army (1972).12 The monument projects, immortalising the heroes of the new epoch, formally repeated the schemes of the interwar monumental sculpture, and it was merely the uniforms of public figures that were changed.
The state, as an ideological client, saw to it that art works, meeting its requirements should be purchased. The so-called decade exhibitions held in the Union's capital required scrupulously accurate and responsible preparations well in advance. In 1951, a competition was announced for genre compositions demonstrating the work of the Soviet people in the struggle for the creation of the Communist society. Awarded works included Petras Vaivada's and Bronius Pundzius' portraits of Lenin and Stalin, the pioneers of great constructions (1st prize), and the figure composition Pioneer, a Friend of Nature by Henrikas Rudzinskas (2nd prize); after the competition and exhibition these works became a property of the Museum.
In the collection of the first post-war decade, the following works distinguish themselves by their artistic value: Petras P. Aleksandravičius' portraits of synthetic realism, Juozas Kėdainis' genre compositions and Juozas Mikėnas' portraits and sketches. It is interesting to observe how in the works of Robertas Antinis, Juozas Mikėnas, Bronius Pundzius and Petras P. Aleksandravičius, the alumni of the Kaunas School of Art, who had received grants for the further study in Paris, the interwar stylistics of national Neo-Classicism was only moderately changed for the schemes of Socialist Realism. Today, rejecting ideological engagement, the majority of the works of that period are interesting with respect to their professional execution and modelling as well as a realistic precision of the contents (e. g. Bernardas Bucas' figure composition Lithuanian Partisan, 1946).
The sculpture collection of the 50s and 60s discloses a vivid tendency to thematically and plastically freer figure compositions (the works by Kazys Kisielis and Leonas Strioga) and a chamber, psychologically generalised portrait (Petras P. Aleksandravičius' Portrait of Writer Balys Sruoga, 1967, Gediminas Jokubonis' Portrait of Mathematics Teacher J. Janulionis, 1962). Significant connections of that period with the tradition of Lithuanian folk wooden figurines of pietas, meditative Christ and saints are observed in Alfonsas Ambražiūnas' and Vladas Vildžiūnas' axe-hewn wooden sculpture. At the same time, artists direct their attention to the traditions of the professional interwar sculpture, which can be seen best in Robertas Antinis' and Juozas Mikėnas' generalised allegoric plastics, Jadvyga Mozūraitė-Klemkienė's and Bronius Vyšniauskas' statues of woman, mother with children. The popular tendencies of art synthesis of that period are evident in Petras P. Aleksandravičius', Juozas Kalinauskas' and Juozas Kėdainis' thematic copper reliefs. The sculptors create more portraits of the Soviet Union and Lithuanian political figures and of Lenin in the spirit of realistic stylistics (Konstantinas Bogdanas, Napoleonas Petrulis, et.al.).
The most innovative works in the collection are those created in the 70s and 80s, employing the stylistics of versatile modernisation and Post-Modernism. They witness a turn in the direction of the diversity of associative plastics. Being oriented not only to folk art traditions but also to the achievements of world culture, they augmented the Museum's collection belatedly due to the fact that they were not always accepted to exhibitions.13 It was the period when more moderate plastic experiments of form were more willingly purchased, e.g., baroque-oriented figure compositions by Albertas Belevičius. The stylisation of the portrait genre was tolerated. Together with realistic portraits by Konstantinas Bogdanas, Napoleonas Petrulis and others, the Museum also acquired some chamber works of expressive stylistics by Vytautas Šerys, lyrical by Leonas Strioga, conceptualised by Algirdas Bosas, Jonas Meškelevičius, Regimantas Midvikis and Mindaugas Navakas. There were, however, some exceptions in the strictly controlled acquisition of the works: the Figure (1972) by Gediminas Karalius, one of the first Lithuanian constructivist sculptors, got to the Museum as a work commissioned by the Artists' Union and specially created for the Riga Quadrennial of Sculpture. In 1979 Petras Mazuras' sculpture Nike (1976), uncommonly provocative at that time, came into the possession of the Museum from the exhibition dedicated to the four-hundredth anniversary of the University of Vilnius. This work seems to be the first Lithuanian post-modernistic sculpture, in which the artist, by means of eclectic matching of classical materials, transformed the motif of the ancient Nike - the fettered, blindfold goddess, here associated with Lithuania's fate and contradictory human nature.
A break in the formation of the collection took place between the 70s and 80s, when besides traditional anniversary and educational exhibitions, visiting small town and village culture clubs, the typology of exhibitions14 grew rapidly more diverse and the attitude of the officials, who controlled the purchase of works, slowly changed as regards the acquisition of non-traditional works (e.g., in 1988 the sculpture Small Bridge (1988) by Mindaugas Navakas, a prize-winner at the Riga Quadrennial, was acquired by the Museum). The works of modernistic stylistics were exhibited not only at home but also at All-Union expositions: at the 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988 Riga quadrennials, at the Exhibition of Soviet Lithuanian Art, dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the October Revolution (Moscow, 1987).
In 1988 the first conceptual exhibitions, financed by the Ministry of Culture, were held: in Klaipeda - 'Man's Signs. Sculpture. Drawings. Photography' (curators Rasa Andriušytė and Elona Lubytė) and in Vilnius - 'Tradition in Lithuanian Art' (curator Raminta Jurėnaitė). The works by students of the State Institute of Art included Algis Lankelis' Stimulus (1987), Artūras Raila's Single Cube (1988), and Kazys Venclovas Fragment (1988) which for the first time as student works were acquired by the Museum.
However, the works of an ideologically oriented subject matter were not 'forgotten': in the 80s the Museum acquired plaster models of portrait tombstones by Napoleonas Petrulis erected in the Antakalnis Military Cemetery: the portraits of Motiejus Šumauskas, Mečislovas Gedvilas, Antanas Sniečkus (1982-1985) and a plastic and bronze replicas of the monument to Lenin by Gediminas Jokubonis (1980) in Panevezys (now dismantled). Ideologically engaged themes were also not alien to young sculptors (a realistically generalised figure composition The Talk (1984) by Valdas Bubelevičius, where the artist depicts the meeting between Lenin and Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas and Portrait of the Indian Statesman Jawaharlal Nehru (1987) by Romualdas Kvintas).
Thus, by way of a gradual acquisition of the works representing the latest trends and tendencies, the Museum has formed not a copious but stylistically diverse collection of Lithuanian contemporary sculpture, rather consistently representing the development of innovative forms. Beside traditional official works, realistic portraits by Konstantinas Bogdanas, Petras Deltuva, Gediminas Jokubonis, Vytautas Mačiuika, Napoleonas Petrulis, Aloyzas Toleikis, Bronius Vyšniauskas, original works by Robertas Antinis, Jr., Vytautas Balsys, Ksenija Jaroševaitė, Stanislovas Kuzma, Dalia Matulaitė, Petras Mazuras, Steponas Sarapovas, Vladas Vildžiūnas distinguish themselves by their individual generalisation of the figure. The most radical with respect to novelty are associative forms, where the sculptors transform the motifs of nature (Gediminas Karalius, Šarūnas Šimulynas, Vytautas Šerys, Vladas Urbanavičius), objects and household utensils (Mindaugas Navakas, Mindaugas Šnipas), as well as abstract (Regimantas Midvikis, Marijonas Šlektavičius) and conceptually iconic motifs (Algis Lankelis, Artūras Raila).
A separate part of the collection, traditionally attributed to numismatics funds, includes the collection of medals, mainly consisting of the works of the 70s and 80s. Besides a few ideologically engaged medals (Erikas Varnas, Skaistė Žilienė)
there dominate works oriented to the metaphoric character of poetic images. Their themes witnesses a strong tendency to commemorate certain events or personalities well-known in the history of Lithuania and the world as well as in the sphere of culture. Besides traditional double-sided (obverse, reverse) and one-sided medals (Algirdas Bosas, Petras Garška, Edmundas Frėjus, Vincas Kisarauskas, Antanas Olbutas, Petras Repšys, Dovydas Zundelovičius and others) and plaquettes (Romualdas Inčirauskas), the collection also contains non-traditional spatial plastic symbols (Gediminas Karalius, Kestutis Musteikis, Stanislovas Kuzma).
Materials of Sculptures. The material diversity of the works in the collection presents great interest. The artist's, particularly the sculptor's technological possibilities have always been influenced by social and economic conditions. In the 1940s, only state-commissioned city monuments and representative exhibition pieces (Stalin and Lenin by Bronius Pundzius and Petras Vaivada, 1954) were cast in bronze at the Monumental Art Enterprise in Leningrad. In general, the most widely used material in exhibition practice was plaster of Paris, sometimes toned, imitating the noble surface of bronze. In the 50s and 60s, more diverse materials were chosen for plastic renewal: terracotta, wood, stone (marble, granite), the reliefs of hammered and welded copper and figure compositions. The 70s and 80s saw the final consolidation of the diversity of materials and technologies as well as the appearance of a specific type of a sculptor-technologist, who realises an original idea himself from beginning to end.15 The dimensions of sculptures grow bigger, they show a postmodernistically eclectic inclination to match different materials, to contrastively tint them, to tone wood, terracotta and stoneware.
The industrial bronze casting was still available only for representative, particularly portraiture commissions. The sculptors, who were more concerned about a freer interpretation of form and had no access to the services of the enterprise (for instance, Ksenija Jaroševaitė, Petras Mazuras, Mindaugas Navakas, Vladas Urbanavičius, Vladas Vildžiūnas) used to cast statues in bronze themselves in their own foundries.
In the sphere of metal art, besides not too numerous bronze casts and carved manufactured stamps, various methods of galvanoplastics coating emerged. In the 70s and 80s, thanks to the Museum's collaboration with the bronze foundry 'Art' in Tallinn, there appeared a possibility to translate fragile plaster works into stable materials. Thus, the reliefs by Juozas Mikėnas, portraits by Napoleonas Petrulis and Vytautas Šerys were recast in bronze.
The Structure of the Publication. Up to the present time, the structure of the publications16 relating to the Museum's collections was not uniform - the layouts of the catalogues and the principles of the presentation of information were different. When preparing this catalogue of Lithuanian sculpture, embracing the period between 1940 and 1990, an attempt is made to furnish as much information as possible. Thus, the artists' brief biographies,17 besides basic studies in art, contain data on the membership in creative organizations and awards - the facts, which previously guaranteed their social status. The main lines of their activities are also specified here.
The works are listed chronologically according to the date of their creation and not of their acquisition. The dimensions of the works are indicated in centimetres by three measurements for round sculptures and high reliefs, by two for reliefs and plaquettes and by one measurement (diameter)for medallions and medals. Both the materials of sculptures and the manner of their processing are specified: the tinting of wood, terracotta and plaster of Paris; the silvering of copper galvanoplastics; the welding of copper plates; the author's bronze casts; the number of manufactured medals, etc. If in the description two materials are mentioned, the second marks the base. For the indication of inventory numbers the following letters are used: S marks the main fund, and Z the auxiliary fund of the collection. In addition to signatures and monograms, the descriptions of the works also include inscriptions on medals, plaquettes and medallions. The term 'portrait' is applied to the picture or sculpture of a person's head. When a person is depicted in full size, as a figure composition, a reference is made only to the portrayed person's name, in some cases, occupation, the sphere of public activities, if the artist has indicated these details. The titles of the figurative and associatively metaphoric compositions are written in the manner they have been presented by the artists.
The present publication includes a list of catalogues18 of Lithuanian and foreign sculpture exhibitions held in the Museum and of those organized by the Museum in foreign countries. The works displayed at such exhibitions usually became part of the Museum's collections.
The illustrative material makes an important visual part of the catalogue. The presentation of the artists' works does not follow the traditional pattern, i.e., the illustrations are not placed right at the list of the works. The amount of the sculptors' works is not always in proportion with their significance for the development of Lithuanian contemporary sculpture: the collection contains 103 works by Napoleonas Petrulis, 17 - Robertas Antinis, Sr., 70 - Juozas Mikėnas, 4 (2 of them acquired in 1995) - Teodoras K. Valaitis.
The chronologically arranged material presents the dominating thematic typology and the most characteristic tendencies of the plastic development. It falls into separate groups: expositions, portraits (figures, busts), monument projects, figure compositions, associative compositions, medals and plaquettes. Due to limited financial possibilities, the photographs for this publication have not been specially made: they have been collected and prepared for publication thanks to good will and support of many contributors. The publication includes the archive material of the Museum's oldest photographer sculptor Stasys Vaitkus, the sculptor Vladas Vildžiūnas, the photographers Arūnas Baltėnas, Alvydas Lukys, the Soros Center for Contemporary Arts -Lithuania, the Aidai Publishers and the LMA Photothaque.
This publication, the preparation of which took over ten years, was made possible only thanks to the financial support of the Soros Center for Contemporary Arts - Lithuania. My thanks are due to the many persons who have helped me.

 
1 LMA Archive. Ap. 1. B. 119. L. 5.
2 Palace of Art Exhibitions (now - Centre for Contemporary Arts) built in 1967, up to 1988 belonged to the Museum. When in 1980, the LSSR
Museum of History and Revolution moved to a new building, the Gallery of Soviet Lithuanian Art was opened in its premises (now Gostauto Str. 1); it functioned between 1984 to 1989; at present the premises are used for the Museum's depository of fine arts.
3 Lithuanian Branch of the USSR Artists' Union.
4 The second (after the LMA) according to its size collection of the Soviet period sculpture is in the National M. K. Čiurlionis Art Museum,
which also used to frequently arrange exhibitions of contemporary arts, particularly of the Kaunas artists' works; the smaller ones, thematically
engaged are kept in the Lithuanian National Museum and regional ethnographic museums. E.g., the Regional Museum in Rokiškis boasts
many works by the sculptor Napoleonas Petrulis, who is of Rokiškis origin.
5 A separate, stylistically accidental group of exhibits, belonging to the collection of the Soviet period sculpture (not included in the cata­logue),  consisting of 85 works by the sculptors of the former Soviet republics - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Latvia and Estonia - was handed over to the Museum by the USSR Fund of Art.
6Information on their dispersion is accumulated in the Soros Center for Contemporary Arts - Lithuania (established in 1993) and in new art
galleries.
7 The works acquired after 1990 are not included in the catalogue.
8 The terms 'small-scale plastics' and "decorative sculpture", which mark a volumetric and functional nature of the works and witness opposition
to official sculpture in the 70s and 80s are less often used now in the analysis of the issues of form and content.
9 XX a. Lietuvos dailės istorija. Lietuvių tarybinė dailė. 1940-1960 (History of the Lithuanian 20th Century Art. Soviet Lithuanian Art: 1940-1960). Vilnius, Vaga Publishers, 1990. Vol. 3, p. 29.
10 A. Andriuškevičius. Seminonkonformistinė lietuvių tapyba 1956-1986. Lietuvos dailė: 1975-1995. (Semi-Nonconformist Lithuanian Art: 1956-1986. Lithuanian Art: 1975-1995), Vilnius, VDA Publishers, 1997. P. 12.
11 XX a. Lietuvių dailė's istorija. Lietuvių tarybinė dailė 1940-1960. (History of Lithuanian 20th Century Art. Lithuanian Soviet Art: 1940-1960.) Vilnius, Vaga Publishers, 1990. Vol. 3, p. 65-66.
12 The projects for the two last competitions stand out for their modern artistic design.
13 The 1st solo exhibition of the works by G. Karalius was held in 1991, by P. Mazuras - in 1994.
14 Republican Exhibition of the Works by Young Artists (1976), Vilnius University in Art (1979), exhibitions of the works by the Baltic young
artists (1979, 1982, 1985, 1988), the 1st Republican Exhibition of Medals and Small-scale Plastics {1979), Exhibition of Decorative
Sculpture by Aloyzas Smilingis, Šarūnas Šimulynas, Lionginas Virbickas (1980), Republican Exhibition of Sculpture (1983), the Posthumous
Exhibition of the Works by Steponas Sarapovas (1983), the 1st Republican Exhibition of Medals (1984), the Posthumous Exhibition of
the Works by Teodoras K. Valaitis (1984), Exhibition of Small-scale Plastics and Drawings by Ksenija Jaroševaitė, Stanislovas Kuzma,
Petras Mazuras, Mindaugas Navakas, Vladas Urbanavičius, Vladas Vildžiūnas (1984).
15 M. Navakas. Medžiagos dialektika (Dialectics of Material). Literatūra ir menas, 27 September 1980. P. 8.
16 Lietuvos dailė 1907-1940.Tapyba, skulptūra. Sudarytojai J. Zvicevičiūtė, P. Juodelis, įvado aut. P. Juodelis. (Lithuanian Art: 1907-1940. Painting. Sculpture) (Compiled by J. Zviceviciute, P. Juodelis. introduction by P. Juodelis,). Vilnius, LMA, 1968. P. 99.
Lietuvos dailė XVI-XIX a. Tapyba. Skulptūra. (Lithuanian Art of the 16th-19th Centuries. Painting. Sculpture) (Compiler and author of introduction. P. Juodelis). Vilnius, 1969. P. 146. Lietuvos XVHI-XIX a. dailė. Piešiniai Katalogas (Lithuanian Art of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Drawings) (compiler and author of introduc­tion B. Svičiulienė). Catalogue. Vilnius, LMA, 1972. P. 105. Lietuviu tarybine grafika 1940-1970. Sudarytojai V. Gasiunas, J. Kuzminskis (jaun.), jvadinio str. aut. V. Gasiunas. (Soviet Lithuanian Graphic Art: 1940-1970 (comp. by V. Gasiūnas, J. Kuzminskis, Jr., introduction by V. Gasiūnas. Vilnius, LMA, 1978. P. 358. Lietuvos grafika 1907-1940. Sudarytojas ir įvadinio str. aut. V. Gasiunas. (Lithuanian Graphic Art: 1907-1940) (compiler and author of introduction V. Gasiunas). Vilnius, LMA, 1985. P. 120. Lietuvos tapyba 1940-1990 Lietuvos dailė's muziejaus rinkiniuose. Sudarytojos A. Tamonyte, L. Bialopetraviciene, R. Rutkauskiene, jvadinio str. aut. N. Nevčesauskienė. (Lithuanian Painting between 1940 and 1990 in the Collections of the Lithuanian Museum of Art) (Comp. by A. Tamonytė, L. Bialopetravičienė, R. Rutkauskienė, introduction by N. Nevčesauskienė). Vilnius, LMA, 1966. P. 230.
17 The clarification of biographical data was based on the archives of the Lithuanian Artists' Union and of the Lithuanian Literature and Art as well as on the material collected by the compiler and Giedrė Jankevičiūtė in the preparation of her book Skulptūra 1975-1990 (Sculpture: 1975-1990) Aidai Publishers, 1997.
18 The list does not include the catalogues of the exhibitions held not in the Museum, and issued by the Lithuanian Artists' Union and the Fund of Art.
 
 
 
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Tinklalapis atnaujintas 2011.08.11