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 Lietuvos dailės muziejaus leidinių katalogai

„Lietuvos tapyba (1940–1990)“ Lietuvos dailės muziejaus rinkiniuose

(1996 m. Vilniuje išleisto katalogo elektroninė versija)

Įžanginis žodis anglų kalba

Nijole Nevcesauskiene
 
Lithuanian Art Museum, besides the old art and that of the first half of the 20th century, has accumulated quite a number of paintings by the Lithuanian artists pro­fessionals of the second half of the 20th century. While differentiating the funds of great volume (10579 pieces), the painting created since 1940 was separated from other collections and named the Fund of Contemporary Art.
The catalogue contains the entries of 4696 works executed in various pictorial techniques by 376 artists. The Museum came into possession of them in the period between 1940 and 1990, i.e. during the period of fifty years. They are the works cre­ated by Lithuanian artists in Lithuania as well as those by the Lithuanian artists who retreated to the West at the end of World War ll. While compiling the catalogue, no selections of works have been made, the catalogue reflects the Museum's real fund of painting of the period.
The accumulation of the fund coincided with the transfer of the Vilnius Museum together with all its collections, the staff and inventory to the old Town Hall on 26th July 1940. The name of the Museum, its status and structure has more than once undergone some changes - on 6th December 1940 the Museum was granted the status of a state museum and on 30th March 1941 it was transferred to the jurisdiction
of the Art Department under the LSSR Soviet of the People's Commissars. In the course of time some of the sections separated and the new ones came into being. Collections of art were formed taking into consideration the profile defined by the very name of the Museum since 1941.
The years of World War II was the period of uncertainty for the Museum. Its small staff was being reduced every month. The threat to lose the collections of old art was increasing with every day. However, even in such conditions the Museum pur­chased and sheltered cultural heritage under its roof. The Purchasing Commission on Art Works directed by Adolfas Valeska and since the October of 1954 by Lev Karsavin did not neglect their work. In the period between 1940 and 1948 it gathered to discuss its business even 92 times (Archive of the LAM, F.I. Ap.1. B.6). Among the books, arms, engravings and the works of applied art that were intended to purchase there were works by Jonas Rustemas (J.Rustem), Vincentas Slendzinskis (W.SIendzinski), Ferdinandas Ruscicas (F.Ruszczyc), Juozapas Oleskevicius (J.OIeszkiewicz) and Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciyrlionis. Since that period the Museum can boast the pre­war paintings by Antanas Zmuidzinavicius, Justinas Vienozinskis, Adomas Galdikas, Viktoras Vizgirda, Leonardas Kazokas and Antanas Gudaitis. The Purchasing Com­mission of exhibits functioned in the Museum till the very end of 1948. It purchased 31 pictures from more prominent artists of the 20s and 30s.
The 1949 archive register (Archive of the LAM, F.1. Ap.1. B.119.L.5) presents the following data: the Museum possesses 4130 pieces of the pre-Soviet Lithuanian art (16th - 20th centuries), among them 1304 paintings, 114 sculptures and 2712 graphic works. The document singles out a new collection - the collection of Lithuanian Soviet art. It contained 153 paintings, 150 graphic sheets and 70 sculptures. The first works included into this collection, in respect to the date of creation and acquisition, are "The Fire in the Town of Kraziai" (1940/41) by Zigmas Petravicius and "Vilnius Viewed from Hill of Three Crosses" (1940/45) by Mecislovas Bulaka.
The formation of the Contemporary Art Fund was inseparable from the accu­mulation system of all the Museum's exhibits, and it was closely connected with the situation in Lithuania after 1940. Since 1946 the Museum's funds were permanently augmented by the works acquired through the Art Department and after 1953 - through the Ministry of Culture. On the instructions of said institutions, the ownership of the arrested and deported citizens as well as the property of the closed and plundered churches were transferred to the Museum. The transferred treasures contained old Lithuanian and West European art, expensive liturgical articles and pieces of sacral art. The acquired collections possessed some works created after 1940: the collection of the liquidated Jewish Museum numbered 7 of them, the collection transferred by the Board of the LSSR Artists' Union -12 and by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Finance - 8.
On 20th June 1946, the Board of the Art Department handed over to the Mu­seum 14 pictures painted in the war and postwar years (Archive of the LAM, F.1 Ap1. B.6 L.57). Among the sights of Vilnius ruins, winter landscapes, peaceful rural work and festive parades there were pictures the main personages of which were Soviet partisans, the peasants carrying bread on red string of carts and the founders of collective farms. The funds of the late 40s contained the works by Vytautas Mackevicius, Levas Mergasilskis, Vincas Dilka, Eugenija Jurkuniene, Petras Kalpokas, Vaclovas Kosciuska, Boleslovas MotOza-Matuzevicius, Liuda Vaineikyte and Irena Treciokaite-Zebenkiene.
Due to the lack of resources for the purchase of works, both the Museum and the Board of the Art Department used to apply for support to the All-Union State Commission for the Purchasing of Art Works (Archive of the LAM, F.1. Ap.1. B.6. L.72). The Museum possesses some exhibits received from the Directorate of Art Exhibi­tions and Panoramas under the USSR Ministry of Culture. Upon the acquisition of works at the all-union exhibitions, it usually transferred the purchases to the repub­lics. In this way, Lithuania besides the works created by Lithuanian artists, has ac­quired some works by the artists of other USSR nations. Acquisitions from the Direc­torate continued between 1946 and 1962.
The LSSR Ministry of Culture, upon the taking over of the functions of the Art Department, coordinated the activities related to the purchase of exhibits and the accumulation of the Museum's funds till 29th of October 1991. This work was del­egated to the commissions comprised of the Ministry's representatives, artists, art critics and museum experts. There functioned several of them under various and changing names. Some of them specialized in the selection for the acquisition of the
pieces of old art as well as other works and memorial things from musicians, artists, theatre-goers, collectors' bequests, others contacted the committees of republican, inter-republican and other exhibitions. The works purchased by the committees were distributed to the museums on the instructions of the minister. Part of the works ac­quired by the LSSR Fund of Art on their own resources were from time to time trans­ferred to them (LAM -1969, 1978, 1985, 1988 - 480 pictures).
Lithuanian Art Museum received quite a number of contemporary paintings from the Republican Expert Commissions on Art .Theatre and Museum Bequests: in 1966 of Jonas Martinaitis (95), in 1971, 1973, 1976 and 1983 - Vytautas Kairiukstis (58), in 1976 - Juozas Mikenas (22), in 1977 - Jonas Svazas (36), in 1980 - Pranas Gudynas (42), Alfonsas Motiejunas (65), Antanas Gedminas (12), Jonas Vilutis (62), in 1985 - Leonas Katinas (19), in 1986 - Irena Treciokaite-Zebenkiene (40) and Napoleonas Petrulis (42), in 1987 - Jonas Kuzminskis (15). Smaller numbers of pic­tures never ceased to be purchased from bequests.
In spite of the fact that after 1948 the Museum was no longer entitled to pur­chase exhibits at its own discretion, it went on taking care of the accumulation of the funds, and had its own commission for that work. In the focus of its attention was folk art, applied art and the library fund. The account books of exhibits make possible to trace that after 1954 it proposed to the Republican Purchasing Commission on Fine Arts to acquire a few pictorial works. The proposals increased in number after 1987.
The Fund of Contemporary Art was particularly greatly increased in the 70s and 80s by the donations made by artists and their relatives. In 1978 and 1994 Ignas Piscikas handed over 85 still lives and landscapes to the Museum, and in 1985 Michailas Percovas (Mikhail Pertsov) presented 30 Vilnius views painted in tempera. A great number of art works came into possession of the Museum from Lithuanian emigrants. The present catalogue lists among its entries 897 works by 35 Lithuanian artists who created in emigration. The biggest collections are represented by the works of Kazimieras Zoromskis (283), Vytautas K.Jonynas (201), Adomas Galdikas (79), MagdalenaStankuniene (79), Bronius Murinas (50), Alfonsas Dargis (46), Alfonsas Krivickas (42), Jokubas Dagys (30), Jadvyga Dobkeviciute-Paukstiene (22), Jonas Rimsa (19), Irena Grieze(17), Elena Urbaityte (16), Vytautas Ignas (16) and Zita Sodeikiene (10). They are the works different in respect to style and technique, cre­ated by the artists who had worked in the interwar Lithuania and later completed their studies in European and American art centres. The impressionistic landscapes, the expressive abstracts, the specimens of op art, the ethnographic compositions, the landscapes of distant lands and the visions of the native country witnessed the exist­ence of another creative environment somewhere a long way from here as well as disclosed some daring creative experiments.
Thus, the joint activities and good intentions as well as the generosity of pri­vate persons and several institutions were crowned with the formation of the contem­porary Lithuanian painting collection, which can accurately enough reflect the devel­opment of painting in the course of some five decades. In respect to genres, the collection is particularly rich in landscapes - 2024 pieces. The respective number of thematic figure and decorative compositions -1638, of portraits - 708 and that of still lives - 326.
The Museum's fund of painting under review reflects the official life of art of the period. Among the pictures created in the postwar years, thematic compositions are dominating. They disclose the reaction to a direct requirement of The Communist Party institutions to take up civil themes as well as a gradual consolidation of an exaggerated festive mood and the pathos of work in art. It was a period when a somewhat dreary and dogmatically defined stylistic trend of a rather single-sided declarative character was dominating in art. The majority of thematic pictures, which were looked upon as classical samples of socialist culture, demonstrated their plac­ard - type character and the idealization of reality. A similar situation prevailed in the genre of painting. A great importance was attached to the selection of the portrayed person and the depiction of his activities. The most neutral remained still lives, though in comparison with other genres their number is the most modest one.
In order to win the artists over to their side, the authorities announced competi­tions. They proposed the lists of the requested themes and commissioned pictures on various occasions as well as made creative contracts with the artists.
The late 50s - the years of so called "thaw" - witnessed certain changes. Be­sides the works by the artists belonging to the older and middle generation, such as Rafaelis Chvolesas, Ceslovas Znamerovskis (Cz. Znamierowski), Augustinas Savickas, Sergejus Graciovas (S. Grachyov), Ceslovas Kontrimas, Alfonsas Motiejunas, the Museum came into possession of some works created by the artists, who were mak­ing their first steps along the road of art, such as Leopoldas Surgailis, Stasys Jusionis, Galina Petrova and Vincentas Gecas. The much more voluminous media as well as a more profound interpretation of reality manifested some new changes for the better.
The panorama of the 60s is represented by the canvases which exemplify a monumental structure of the view, vivid and meaningful colors as well as an expres­sive manner of painting. They are the landscapes painted by Jonas Svazas and Jonas Ceponis, the many-figured compositions by Sofija Veiveryte, the urban panoramas by Aloyzas Stasiulevicius, the thematic pictures by Leonardas Tuleikis and Silvestras Dziaukstas, the portraits by Vladas Karatajus and Vytautas Ciplijauskas.
The creative attempts of the artist deserved favorable estimation, and their works were constantly bought by the Museum during the next two decades. This was the way how the collections comprised of the works of the most popular artists of the 60s were formed in the Museum.
The works kept in the Museum's funds make it possible to perceive the pro­cess of the changes in Lithuanian art, the formation of a coloring trend with its more conditional visual language as well as a gradual transition from the romanticizing of the reality and typifying everyday scenes to more intimate everyday scenes and desocialization of the subject. The Museum can boast now a rather great number of subtle pictures by Algirdas Petrulis, Brone Mingailaite-Uogintiene, Antanas Martinaitis and Marija Cvirkiene. The inexhaustible theme of man's spiritual resistence and re­spect for his inner life did not lose its vitality.
The 70s saw the decline in the pathos. The need for monumental thematic pictures decreased. The accents of man's social dependence and the heroic spirit of work were abandoned. The artists show not only a new and attentive, but also a critical approach towards a great many of things. The tendencies of philosophical thinking, arising from the contrasts of man's moods, the interaction of the inner and outer world, were on the increase. The drama of contemporary civilization is expressed through the many-fold space as well as the combinations of unusual scales, textures, colors and the depicted objects. It is the language of anxiety, pulsating in the works of Marija Terese Rozanskaite, Vincas Kisarauskas, Igoris Piekuras and Valentinas Antanavicius created in the 70s. The artists Leonardas Gutauskas, Algimantas Kuras, Kostas Dereskevicius and Arvydas Saltenis appear on the arena of art more notice­ably.
The First Exhibition of Art of the Baltic Republics "Jouth" (1979) opened the road to the world of art for such artists as Romas Dalinkevicius, Jonas Daniliauskas, Giedrius Kazimierenas, Dalia Kasciunaite, Raimondas Martinenas, and Adomas Jacovskis. Some time later appeared the works by Raimondas Slizys, Mindaugas Skudutis, Jurate Bagdonaviciute, which exploited "ugly" motifs and the transformed shape of man as well as grotesque phenomena. Quite unexpected layers of life and surrealistic visions were opened in the pictures by Henrikas Natalevicius, Vygantas Paukste, Jurate Mykolaityte, Ricardas Filistovicius and Sarunas Sauka. It was the mid -80s when the Museum began purchasing pictures from the artists, whose works the expert commissions seemed not to have noticed in exhibition halls earlier - by Linas Leonas Katinas and Povilas Ricardas Vaitekunas. The Museum acquired some works of Kaze Zimblyte and Eugenijus Antanas Cukermanas only at the end of the decade.
The collections formed within the period of fifty years testify the artists' at­tempts to solve professional tasks of painting in their own way as well as to show the formation of their individual style, the changes in their interests and the priorities of their artistic principles. At present the Museum possesses rather rich collections of the works created by Kazimieras Abramavicius (68), Ignas Budrys (51), Silvestras Dziaukstas (51), Vincentas Gecas (48), Antanas Gudaitis (61), Stasys Jusionis (72), Vladas Karatajus (66), Leonas Katinas (54), Vytautas Mackevicius (38), Antanas Martinaitis (22), Alfonsas Motiejunas (92), Algirdas Petrulis (86), Augustinas Savickas (103), Aloyzas Stasiulevicius (50), Petras Stauskas (32), Jonas Svazas (117), Leonardas Tuleikis (54), Bronius Uogintas (46).
The catalogue has been compiled in an alphabetical order according to the artists' surnames. The artists are presented briefly, the list indicates the title of the work, the year of creation, technique, size in centimeters, inscriptions, the inventory number and the year of the acquisition of the work by the Museum.

 

 
 
 
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Tinklalapis atnaujintas 2011.08.09